Tuesday, January 02, 2007

Architects of Chicago:

I: William Le Baron Jenney – “father of skyscrapers”
A native of Massachusetts, William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907) served as an engineer in the Civil War, where he designed fortifications at Corinth, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. He came to Chicago in 1867, forming the firm of Jenney, Schermerhorn and Bogart.
[1] Jenney's firm helped develop Riverside, Illinois, the nation's first planned "railroad suburb."
[2] Jenney also was involved in the planning of Chicago's extensive boulevard system, most notably Douglas, Garfield, and Humboldt parks.

[3] However, Jenney's greatest impact came in his role in the development of the first steel-framed skyscraper, in such designs as the Leiter I Building (1879; demolished), the Home Insurance Building (1884; demolished), and the Leiter II, Ludington, and Manhattan buildings

Jenney's architectural office was a well-known training ground for young architects, including Daniel H. Burnham, William Holabird, Irving K. Pond, Martin Roche, and Louis H. Sullivan

Daniel Burnham – city planner [1893 World Columbia’s Exposition & The Plan of Chicago]
“make no small plans …… “
Raised and educated in Chicago, Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) gained his early architectural experience with William Le Baron Jenney, the so-called "father of the skyscraper."

[1] Burnham & Root: In 1873, Burnham formed a partnership with John Wellborn Root (1850-1891) that produced such commissions as the Kent House, Masonic Temple (demolished), Monadnock Building, Reliance, Rookery, St. Gabriel's Church, and the Union Stock Yard Gate.
[2] D.H. Burnham & Company: Following Root's death in 1891, the firm became known as D.H. Burnham and Co. Its design output continued to be prodigious, including department stores (Marshall Field's), office buildings (People's Gas and the Railway Exchange, at 122 and 224 S. Michigan, respectively), and public buildings (e.g., park fieldhouses, railroad stations, city halls) all across the country.
[3] Plan of Chicago: Daniel Burnham & his assistant Edward H. Bennett::However, Burnham gained an even greater reputation for his influence as a city planner. He supervised the laying out and construction of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition and, in 1909, Burnham and his assistant Edward H. Bennett (Michigan Avenue Bridge) prepared The Plan for Chicago, which is considered the nation's first example of a comprehensive planning document. Burnham also worked on other city plans, including ones for Cleveland, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and Manila in the Phillipines.
[4] Graham Anderson Prost & White: Numerous important architects worked for Burnham's firm, including Peirce Anderson, Charles Atwood (Museum of Science and Industry), Ernest Graham, and Frederick Dinkelberg (35 E. Wacker Building, Heyworth Building). Following his death, the firm continued as Graham, Anderson, Probst and White; its commissions include the Civic Opera Building, Field Building, Field Museum, Merchandise Mart, Union Station, and Wrigley Building. Burnham Park, which is located along Lake Michigan south of the Loop, is named in honor of the famed architect-planner.

Louis Sullivan:
Considered to be one of America's most influential architects, Louis Henry Sullivan (1856- 1924) was born in Boston and initially worked for renowned Philadelphia architect Frank Furness. He came to Chicago in 1873, where he worked briefly for William Le Baron Jenney, the so-called "father of the skyscraper." After a year of study in Paris, Sullivan returned to Chicago and became a draftsman for John Edelman, whose luxuriant organic ornamental designs had a significant influence on Sullivan. In 1879, Sullivan joined the firm of Dankmar Adler (1844 - 1900), one of the city's most outstanding structural engineers.

Adler & Sullivan: Their 15-year architectural partnership produced some of the most important--and influential--structures in the history of American architecture. By boldly rejecting the accepted practice of buildings based on historic design precedents, Adler & Sullivan created original designs that evolved from the functional requirements of each project, as well as the materials and technologies of the time. In doing so, Sullivan created a distinctive style of ornament that embraced natural forms.
Initially, the firm's work was limited to residences and small commercial buildings, such as the Ryerson and Troescher (both demolished), Eliel House, Jewelers' Building, and Kaufmann Store and Flats. However, in the late-1880s and early-1890s, their work grew in scale, with such skyscrapers as the Stock Exchange and Schiller Theater (both demolished), the Auditorium, the Wainwright in St. Louis, Mo., and the Guaranty buildings in Buffalo, N.Y. After the partners split in 1895, Sullivan designed the Carson Pirie Scott department store, the Gage Building, and the Bayard Building in New York. Following the turn of the century, his work largely consisted of small banks, stores, and churches throughout the Midwest, including Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church and, his final design, the Krause Music Store.
• Jewelers' Building
• Auditorium Building
• Carson Pirie Scott
• Gage Group
• Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral and Rectory

[IV] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Born in Aachen, Germany, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) initially worked as a draftsman specializing in furniture design and rendering. After working with progressive German architect Peter Behrens, Mies opened his own office in 1914. He soon achieved international recognition as one of the leading figures of modern architecture, through such works as the German Pavilion at the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona, Spain, and the Tugendhat House in Brno, Czechoslovakia. He also established a reputation in the field of architectural education, having been affiliated with the famed Bauhaus school of design in Germany. He served as its director from 1930 to 1933, when the political pressures of Nazi Germany forced its closing.
In 1938, the Armour Institute of Technology, a modest technical training school on Chicago's near South Side, engaged Mies to take over its architectural program. He also established his own independent architectural practice, and his first client proved to be the school itself, which had merged in 1940 with Lewis Institute to form the Illinois Institute of Technology. Mies helped develop a comprehensive master plan for the campus and designed nearly 20 individual buildings, which comprise the largest and most important collection of Mies buildings anywhere. He also designed dozens of other internationally significant buildings, including the Seagram Building in New York, the Farnsworth House in Plano, IL, and the Federal Center in Chicago.
Mies ranks as one of the most notable architects of the 20th century. With his highly developed sense of classical proportion, appreciation of modern structure and materials, and keen sense of craftsmanship, he created buildings that provided a new style for the 20th century, one that reshaped architecture following World War II. The street in front of Chicago's Museum of Contemporary Art, near Mies' former residence, is named in honor of the architect.
1. 860-880 Lake Shore Drive
2. Crown Hall

One South wacker drive
Citicorp center
120 N lasalle Blg

Kohn Pederson Fox:
333 Wacker Drive
900 N Michigan Avenue
311 South Wacker Drive


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